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霍金再發聲:機器人將取代人類 地球很危險!(組圖)

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發表於 2017-11-9 14:21:46 | 顯示全部樓層 |閱讀模式
來源:譯·世界

據英國《獨立報》11月2日報道,英國著名物理學家史蒂芬·霍金(Stephen Hawking)在接受采訪時說,人工智能(AI)能很快會成為一種新的生命形態,甚至某一天會超越人類。事實上,這並不是霍金第一次讓人類警惕AI的發展。那麼,這些年來,作為著名物理學家的霍金,他眼中的AI是什麼樣的?將對人類產生哪些影響?Yee君這就來幫你梳理一番↓
2017“AI將成為完全取代人類的新生命體”
Renowned physicist Prof Stephen Hawking has saidrobots will eventually completely replace humanity.
著名物理學家史蒂芬·霍金教授稱,機器人終將完全取代人類。
Prof Hawking said that he believes artificial intelligence (AI) will eventually reach a level where it will essentially be a "new form of life that will outperform humans" in an interview with WIRED magazine.
霍金教授在接受《連線》雜志采訪時說,相信人工智能(AI)將會發展成為“一種超越人類的新的生命形態”。
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He said: "I fear that AI may replace humans altogether. If people design computer viruses, someone will design AI that improves and replicates itself. This will be a new form of life that outperforms humans."
他說:“我擔心AI可能會完全取代人類。如果有人能設計出計算機病毒,也會有人設計出能不斷自我進化、復制的AI,到時候AI將會成為一種超越人類的新的生命形態。”
The 75-year-old also spoke of his belief that we need a new space age to entice young people to get involved in science and said there would be "serious consequences" if more people didn't show an interest.
這位75歲的老人還談到了自己的信念,他認為我們需要一個新的太空時代來吸引年輕人參與科學,如果更多的人對科學不感興趣將會產生“嚴重的後果”。
He added that he thinks a new space programme should be worked on urgently by the science community "with a view to eventually colonising suitable planets for human habitation."
霍金稱,制定新的太空計劃是當前科學界的迫切工作,“希望最終能找到宇宙中合適的行星作為人類另一個可以居住的地方。”
He continued: "I believe we have reachedthe point of no return. Our earth is becoming too small for us, global population is increasing at an alarming rate and we are in danger of self-destructing."
他繼續說:“我覺得我們人類已經到達了一個無法後退的臨界點。地球對我們來說太小了,全球人口正在以驚人的速度增加,我們正處於自我毀滅的危險中。”
Earlier this year, he called for technology to be controlled in order to prevent it from destroying the human race, and said humans need to find a way to identify potential threats quickly, before they have a chance to escalate and endanger civilisation.
今年年初,他呼籲要控制技術的發展,防止技術毀滅人類,並說人類需要迅速搞清楚潛在的威脅,避免人工智能不斷升級和危害文明。
2016“AI將毀滅或顛覆社會”
In October last year (2016), Prof Hawking said he believedAI would either destroy or transform society.
2016年10月,霍金教授稱,相信AI將毀滅或顛覆社會。


▲霍金教授在劍橋大學舉行的“未來智能中心”開幕儀式上發表演講

Speaking at the launch of Cambridge University's artificial intelligence centre last year Prof Hawking said: "I believe there is no deep difference between what can be achieved by a biological brain and what can be achieved by a computer.
去年,霍金教授在劍橋大學舉行的“未來智能中心”開幕儀式上說:“我相信,生物大腦能夠實現的目標和計算機能夠實現的目標之間沒有太大區別。”
"It therefore follows thatcomputers can, in theory, emulate human intelligence – and exceed it.
“因此,理論上說,計算機可以模擬人類的智慧並超越它。
"Artificial intelligence is now progressing rapidly. Recent landmarks such as self-driving cars, or a computer winning at the game of Go, are signs of what is to come.
“現在AI正在迅速發展。近來AI領域的里程碑,比如之前提到的自動駕駛汽車,以及AI贏得圍棋比賽,都是未來趨勢的跡象。”
"Enormous levels of investment are pouring into this technology. The achievements we have seen so far will surely pale against what the coming decades will bring.”
“技術領域正在傾注巨大的投資。我們目前所取得的成就和未來幾十年後可能取得的成就相比,必然相形見絀。”
He went on: "The potential benefits of creating intelligence are huge. We cannot predict what we might achieve, when our own minds are amplified by AI.
他接着說:“創造智能的潛在好處是巨大的。當我們的思想被AI擴大時,我們無法預測我們將實現哪些可能。”
"Perhaps with the tools of this new technological revolution, we will be able to undo some of the damage done to the natural world by the last one - industrialisation.
“或許,通過這場新技術革命的工具,我們將能消除上一個工業化過程對自然界造成的破壞。”
"And surely we will aim to finally eradicate disease and poverty. Every aspect of our lives will be transformed. In short, success in creating AI, could bethe biggest event in the history of our civilisation."
“當然,我們的終極目標是根除疾病和貧困。我們生活的方方面面都將被改造,總之,成功創造AI可能是人類文明史上最重大的事件。
Prof Hawking added: "We spend a great deal of time studying history, which, let's face it, is mostly the history of stupidity.
霍金教授還補充說:“我們花了大量的時間研究歷史,讓我們面對現實吧,歷史長河中的大部分都是愚蠢。”
“So it is awelcome changethat people are studying instead the future of intelligence.
“因此人們正在研究的是一個值得歡迎的變革,而不是智能的未來。”
"Intelligence is central to what it means to be human.
“智能對於人類而言至關重要。”
2015“AI可能會間接終結人類”
Back in 2015, he also expressed fears thatAI could grow so powerful it might end up killing humans unintentionally.
早在2015年,霍金曾擔心AI將變得非常強大,最終可能會間接終結人類。
“The real risk with AI isn't malice but competence,” he said. “A super intelligent AI will be extremely good at accomplishing its goals, and if those goals aren't aligned with ours, we're in trouble.”
他說:“AI的真正風險不是它的惡意,而是它的能力。一個超智能的人工智能在完成目標方面非常出色,如果這些目標與我們的目標不一致,我們就會陷入困境。”
2014“人類終將被AI超越”
He told the BBC in 2014:"The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race."
2014年,霍金在接受BBC采訪時表示:“AI的高速發展將預示着人類文明的終結。


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His warning came in response to a question about a revamp of the technology he uses to communicate, which involves a basic form of AI.
他的警告是為了回應一個關於他用來交流的技術革新的問題,這其中涉及到一種基本的人工智能。
But others are less gloomy about AI's prospects.
不過其他人對於人工智能的前景並沒有這么悲觀。
The theoretical physicist, who has the motor neurone disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is using a new system developed by Intel to speak.
這位患有運動神經元疾病肌萎縮性側索硬化症的理論物理學家,通過英特爾開發的全新系統來說話。
Machine learning experts from the British company Swiftkey were also involved in its creation. Their technology, already employed as a smartphone keyboard app, learns how the professor thinks and suggests the words he might want to use next.
英國Swiftkey公司的機器認知方面的專家也參加了這一系統的開發。這家公司的技術已經被用在智能手機的按鍵應用軟件中,揣摩霍金教授的思想並推測他可能希望使用的詞語。
Prof Hawking says the primitive forms of artificial intelligence developed so far have already proved very useful, but he fears the consequences of creating something that can match or surpass humans.
霍金教授說,人工智能目前的初步階段已經證明非常有用,但他擔心創造出媲美人類甚至超過人類的東西將要面對的後果。
"It would take off on its own, and re-design itself at an ever increasing rate," he said.
他說:“它可能自行啟動,以不斷加快的速度重新設計自己。”
"Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn't compete, and would be superseded."
“人類則局限於緩慢的生物進化過程,沒有競爭力,最終將被超越。”
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